Androgen receptor (AR) antagonists are used for hormone therapy of prostate cancer (PCa). However resistance to the treatment occurs eventually. One possible reason is the occurrence of AR mutations that prevent inhibition of AR-mediated transactivation by antagonists. To offer in future more options to inhibit AR signaling, novel chemical lead structures for new AR antagonists would be beneficial. Here we analyzed structure-activity relationships of a battery of 36 non-steroidal structural variants of methyl anthranilate including 23 synthesized compounds. We identified structural requirements that lead to more potent AR antagonists. Specific compounds inhibit the transactivation of wild-type AR as well as AR mutants that render treatment resistance to hydroxyflutamide, bicalutamide and the second-generation AR antagonist enzalutamide. This suggests a distinct mode of inhibiting the AR compared to the clinically used compounds. Competition assays suggest binding of these compounds to the AR ligand binding domain and inhibit PCa cell proliferation. Moreover, active compounds induce cellular senescence despite inhibition of AR-mediated transactivation indicating a transactivation-independent AR-pathway. In line with this, fluorescence resonance after photobleaching (FRAP) - assays reveal higher mobility of the AR in the cell nuclei. Mechanistically, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) - assays indicate that the amino-carboxy (N/C)-interaction of the AR is not affected, which is in contrast to known AR-antagonists. This suggests a mechanistically novel mode of AR-antagonism. Together, these findings indicate the identification of a novel chemical platform as a new lead structure that extends the diversity of known AR antagonists and possesses a distinct mode of antagonizing AR-function.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Methyl anthranilate derivatives, Antiandrogens, Androgen receptor, Antihormone, Prostate cancer, Cellular senescence
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2018.12.005, hdl.handle.net/1765/116313
Journal The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Citation
Roell, D, Rosler, T.W., Hessenkemper, W, Kraft, F, Hauschild, M., Bartsch, S, … Baniahmad, A. (2019). Halogen-substituted anthranilic acid derivatives provide a novel chemical platform for androgen receptor antagonists. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 188, 59–70. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2018.12.005