This dissertation examines the enactments of self- and other-focused Emotional Intelligence (EI). The findings show that the enactments of self- and other-focused EI fluctuate from time to time, and that these fluctuations have direct consequences for well-being and (job) performance outcomes. Importantly, a distinction in self- versus other-focused EI appears to be meaningful as one’s own and others’ emotions are conceptually different and both forms of EI are associated with unique behavioral strategies and outcomes. Self-focused EI seems important to diminish stress and ill-health, whereas other-focused EI seems mainly relevant for social and work-related success. These findings imply that to remain a happy, healthy, and successful worker, employees need to display high levels of self- and other-focused EI. Moreover, the present work implicitly suggests that the best way to do this is to strategically first manage one’s own emotions, before managing the emotions of others. In this way, individuals can devote their entire cognitive, attentional, and energetic resource pool to one emotion process at a time. Building on these findings, an important outcome of this dissertation is the episodic process model of EI in which the dynamics between the enactments of self- and other-focused EI and their proximal and distal consequences for well-being and performance outcomes are incorporated. In light of its general findings, this dissertation may contribute to new and inspiring research ideas that may help to better understand how EI affects daily (organizational) life.

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A.B. Bakker (Arnold) , D. van der Linden (Dimitri) , M.Ph. Born (Marise)
Erasmus University Rotterdam
Institute of Psychology

Pekaar, K. A. (2019, May 16). Self- and Other-Focused Emotional Intelligence. Retrieved from