Background: To support effective self-management after kidney transplantation, a holistic nurse-led self-management support intervention was developed using the Intervention Mapping approach. The primary aim was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and fidelity of the intervention for kidney transplant recipients and professionals. The secondary aim was to explore preliminary effects on outcomes. Methods: A pilot study was conducted in 2015–2017 to evaluate the intervention. Nurse Practitioners (NP) guided recipients in assessing 14 life areas using the Self-Management Web. Participants were supported in developing selfregulation skills which can be applied to self-management of the illness. Strategies included goal setting, action planning, and promotion of motivation and self-efficacy. Adult recipients from an outpatient clinic of a Dutch University Hospital who underwent their transplant at least 1 month ago, were invited to participate. NPs, nephrologists and recipients were interviewed to assess feasibility, fidelity and implementation experience. Consultations were videoed and analysed to assess fidelity. To assess the preliminary effects, the intervention group completed baseline (T0) and follow-up (T1) questionnaires on self-management behavior, self-efficacy, quality of life and quality of care. A historical control group of kidney transplant recipients completed the same questionnaires at T1. Results: Twenty-seven recipients agreed to participate in the intervention group, of which 24 completed the intervention and 16 completed baseline and follow-up surveys. The control group consisted of 33 recipients. Professionals and recipients appraised the open, holistic focus of the intervention as a welcome addition to standard care and felt that this helped to build a relationship of trust. Recipients also felt they became more competent in problem-solving skills. The within-group analysis showed no significant increase in patients’ self-management skills. The between-groups analysis showed significantly higher medication adherence among the intervention group (P = 0.03; G = 0.81). The within-groups analysis showed a significantly higher perceived quality of care (P = 0.02) in the intervention group. Conclusion: This holistic nurse-led self-management support intervention was found to be feasible and acceptable by professionals and recipients alike. This pilot had a small sample therefore further research is needed into the potential effects on self-management behavior and well-being of transplant recipients. ISRCTN Trial Registry: ISRCTN15057632 (registered retrospectively on 20-07-2018).

Additional Metadata
Keywords Organtransplantation, Endstage-renal disease, Selfcare, Selfmanagement support, Nurse practitioner, Nursing, Intervention evaluation, Pilot study
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-019-1300-7, hdl.handle.net/1765/116925
Journal BMC Nephrology
Citation
Been-Dahmen, J.M.J, Beck, D.K, Peeters, M. A. C., van der Stege, H., Moors-Tielen, M, Buren, M.C, … Massey, E.K. (2019). Evaluating the feasibility of a nurse-led self-management support intervention for kidney transplant recipients: a pilot study. BMC Nephrology, 20. doi:10.1186/s12882-019-1300-7