GDF-15 (growth differentiation factor 15) acts both as a stress-induced cytokine with diverse actions at different body sites and as a cell-autonomous regulator linked to cellular senescence and apoptosis. For multiple reasons, this divergent transforming growth factor-β molecular superfamily member should be better known to pulmonary researchers and clinicians. In ambulatory individuals, GDF-15 concentrations in peripheral blood are an established predictive biomarker of all-cause mortality and of adverse cardiovascular events. Concentrations upon admission of critically ill patients (without or with sepsis) correlate with organ dysfunction and independently predict short- and long-term mortality risk. GDF-15 is a major downstream mediator of p53 activation, but it can also be induced independently of p53, notably by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents. GDF-15 blood concentrations are markedly elevated in adults and children with pulmonary hypertension. Concentrations are also increased in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, in which they contribute to mucus hypersecretion, airway epithelial cell senescence, and impaired antiviral defenses, which together with murine data support a role for GDF-15 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pathogenesis and progression. This review summarizes biological and clinical data on GDF-15 relevant to pulmonary and critical care medicine. We highlight the recent discovery of a central nervous system receptor for GDF-15, GFRAL (glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor family receptor-α–like), an important advance with potential for novel treatments for obesity and cachexia. We also describe limitations and controversies in the existing literature, and we delineate research questions that must be addressed to determine whether GDF-15 can be therapeutically manipulated in other clinical settings.

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Journal American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
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Verhamme, FM, Freeman, C.M., Brusselle, G.G, Bracke, K.R, & Curtis, J.L. (2019). GDF-15 in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 60(6), 621–628. doi:10.1165/rcmb.2018-0379TR