Objectives To present EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) index scores in Indonesian type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) outpatients and to investigate the associations between EQ-5D and socio-demographic characteristics and clinical condition. Methods Socio-demographic data were collected by interviewing participants, clinical data were obtained from treating physicians and self-reporting. Participants originated from primary and secondary care facilities in the Java and Sulawesi regions. Ordinal regression analysis was conducted with the quintiles of the EQ-5D index scores as the dependent variable to investigate the multivariate association with the participants’ socio-demographic characteristics and clinical condition. Results 907 participants completed the five-level Indonesian version of the EQ-5D. The mean age of the participants was 59.3 (SD 9.7), and 57% were female. The overall EQ-5D index score was 0.77 (0.75–0.79). Male participants had a higher EQ-5D index score compared to females, and the highest percentage of self-reported health problems was in the pain/ discomfort dimension (61%). Factors identified as being significantly associated with lower EQ-5D index scores were: (i) treatment in secondary care, (ii) lower educational level, (iii) dependency on caregivers, (iv) not undergoing T2DM therapy, and (v) being a housewife. Conclusion This study provides estimates of EQ-5D index scores that can be used in health economic evaluations. As housewives were found to experience more T2DM-related pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression, targeted approaches to reduce these problems should be aimed specifically at this group of patients. Potential approaches could involve diseasespecific-counselors (health literacy partners) who provide routine monitoring of T2DM therapy as well as improved health promotion among T2DM communities.

Additional Metadata
Keywords EQ-5D-5L · Index scores · Type 2 diabetes mellitus · Health-related quality of life · Indonesia
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-019-02105-z, hdl.handle.net/1765/117062
Journal Quality of Life Research
Citation
Arifin, B., Idrus, L.R., van Asselt, A.D.I, Purba, F.D, Perwitasari, D.A., At Thobari, J., … Postma, M.J. (2019). Health-related quality of life in Indonesian type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatients measured with the Bahasa version of EQ-5D. Quality of Life Research, 28(5), 1179–1190. doi:10.1007/s11136-019-02105-z