Cell death is a natural process for the turnover of aged cells, but it can also arise as a result of pathological conditions. Cell death is recognized as a key feature in both acute and chronic hepatobiliary diseases caused by drug, alcohol, and fat uptake; by viral infection; or after surgical intervention. In the case of chronic disease, cell death can lead to (chronic) secondary inflammation, cirrhosis, and the progression to liver cancer. In liver transplantation, graft preservation and ischemia/reperfusion injury are associated with acute cell death. In both cases, so-called programmed cell death modalities are involved. Several distinct types of programmed cell death have been described of which apoptosis and necroptosis are the most well known. Parenchymal liver cells, including hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, are susceptible to both apoptosis and necroptosis, which are triggered by distinct signal transduction pathways. Apoptosis is dependent on a proteolytic cascade of caspase enzymes, whereas necroptosis induction is caspase-independent. Moreover, different from the “silent” apoptotic cell death, necroptosis can cause a secondary inflammatory cascade, so-called necroinflammation, triggered by the release of various damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). These DAMPs activate the innate immune system, leading to both local and systemic inflammatory responses, which can even cause remote organ failure. Therapeutic targeting of necroptosis by pharmacological inhibitors, such as necrostatin-1, shows variable effects in different disease models.

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Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1002/lt.25488, hdl.handle.net/1765/117490
Journal Liver Transplantation
Shi, S. (Shaojun), Verstegen, M.M.A, Mezzanotte, L, de Jonge, J, Löwik, C.W.G.M, & van der Laan, L.J.W. (2019). Necroptotic Cell Death in Liver Transplantation and Underlying Diseases: Mechanisms and Clinical Perspective. Liver Transplantation (Vol. 25, pp. 1091–1104). doi:10.1002/lt.25488