Background: After 5 years since the registration of rifaximin-α as a secondary prophylaxis for overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in the Netherlands, we aimed to evaluate the use of hospital resources and safety of rifaximin-α treatment in a real-world setting. Methods: We carried out prospective identification of all patients using rifaximin-α for overt HE. We assessed hospital resource use, bacterial infections, and adverse events during 6-month episodes before and after rifaximin-α initiation. Results: During 26 months we included 127 patients [71.7% male; median age 60.8 years (interquartile range: 56.2–66.1); median model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score 15.0 (interquartile range: 12.1–20.4); 98% using lactulose treatment]. When comparing the first 6 months after rifaximin-α initiation with the prior 6 months, HE-related hospital admissions decreased (0.86 to 0.41 admissions/patient; p < 0.001), as well as the mean length of stay (8.85 to 3.79 bed days/admission; p < 0.001). No significant differences were found regarding HE-related intensive care unit admissions (0.09 to 0.06 admission/patient; p = 0.253), stay on the intensive care unit (0.43 to 0.57 bed days/admission; p = 0.661), emergency department visits (0.66 to 0.51 visits/patient; p = 0.220), outpatient clinic visits (2.49 to 3.30 bed visits/patient; p = 0.240), or bacterial infections (0.41 to 0.35 infections/patient; p = 0.523). Adverse events were recorded in 2.4% of patients. Conclusions: The addition of rifaximin-α to lactulose treatment was associated with a significant reduction in the number and length of HE-related hospitalizations for overt HE. Rifaximin-α treatment was well tolerated.

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Keywords efficacy, end-stage liver disease, healthcare utilization, hepatic encephalopathy, rifaximin-α, safety
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Journal Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
Oey, R.C. (Rosalie C.), Buck, L.E.M. (Lennart E.M.), Erler, N.S, van Buuren, H.R, & de Man, R.A. (2019). The efficacy and safety of rifaximin-α: a 2-year observational study of overt hepatic encephalopathy. Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, 12. doi:10.1177/1756284819858256