Nitrofurantoin is an old antibiotic and an important first-line oral antibiotic for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. However despite its long term use for over 60 years, little information is available with respect to its dose justification and this may be the reason of highly variable recommended doses and dosing schedules. Furthermore, nitrofurantoin is not a uniform product -crystal sizes of nitrofurantoin, and therefore pharmacokinetic properties, differ significantly by product. Moreover, pharmacokinetic profiling of some products is even lacking, or difficult to interpret because of its unstable chemical properties. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data is now slowly becoming available. This review provides an overview of nitrofurantoins antibacterial, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. This shows that a clear rationale of current dosing regimens is scanty.

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Keywords Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, Urinary tract infections, Antibiotic resistance
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Journal Drug Resistance Updates
Wijma, R.A., Fransen, F, Muller, A.F, & Mouton, J.W. (2019). Optimizing dosing of nitrofurantoin from a PK/PD point of view: What do we need to know?. Drug Resistance Updates, 43, 1–9. doi:10.1016/j.drup.2019.03.001