BACKGROUND: Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) often result from intraluminal microbial colonization and are associated with morbidity, mortality, and substantial costs. The use of antimicrobial catheter lock solutions may reduce the incidence of CLABSI. METHODS: Patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) through a prevalent central venous catheter (CVC) were randomly assigned to have their CVC locked between dialysis sessions with an antimicrobial catheter lock solution that contained trimethoprim 5 mg/mL, ethanol 25%, and Ca-EDTA 3% (investigational medical device [IMD]) or heparin 5000 U/mL active control heparin (ACH). Exit site care was standardized by protocol-driven use of skin antiseptics and occlusive dressings. The composite primary endpoint consisted of the incidence of CLABSI and intracatheter thrombolytic treatment (TT). Given the viscosity and odor of the IMD, blinding was impossible. Therefore, a blinded endpoint committee adjudicated the incidence of CLABSI. RESULTS: A total of 270 patients on HD were enrolled and followed for 43738 CVC-days. Despite the low CLABSI incidence of 0.41/1000 CVC-days in patients randomized to ACH, the IMD further reduced the incidence 4.56-fold to 0.09/1000 CVC-days (P < .03). The product was well tolerated, and the frequency and severity of adverse events were comparable between groups. Intracatheter instillation of thrombolytics was more frequent in patients who received the IMD (12% ACH, 40% IMD; P < .001), but rates of catheter removal did not differ (13% ACH, 11% IMD). Overall, dialysis adequacy was comparable between groups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients on chronic HD, a trimethoprim, ethanol, and Ca-EDTA lock solution significantly reduced the incidence of CLABSI. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT01989091.

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Keywords antimicrobial catheter lock, biofilm, central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), HD, randomized trial
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Journal Clinical Infectious Diseases
Rijnders, B.J.A, DiSciullo, G.J. (Gino J.), Csiky, B. (Botond), Rutkowski, B. (Bolesław), Appelt, K. (Krzysztof), Cheronis, J. (John), … Fluck, R. (Richard). (2019). Locking Hemodialysis Catheters With Trimethoprim-Ethanol-Ca-EDTA to Prevent Bloodstream Infections: A Randomized, Evaluator-blinded Clinical Trial. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 69(1), 130–136. doi:10.1093/cid/ciy840