Studies about the effectiveness and efficiency of planning policies in general, and of land readjustment (LR) regulations in particular, face many challenges given the paucity of common methods that allow systematic comparisons between different contexts. This paper develops an analytical framework to study the effectiveness and efficiency of LR-regulations and applies it in Germany, Spain, and Israel. This framework defines several independent variables: LR regulation, its related coercive powers, and its interaction with public value capture instruments. The conceptual frame also defines the dependent variables: certainty about the provision of necessary inputs (land and financial means) and about the necessary outputs (implementation of land readjustment and infrastructure provision). Using this analytical framework, it is possible to compare the degree to which the studied LR-regulations are effective and efficient, i.e. whether they provide serviced building plots with proper public infrastructure without public subsidy.

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Keywords Developer obligations, Finance, Infrastructure, Land policy, Land readjustment, Land value capture
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Journal Land Use Policy
Muñoz Gielen, D, & Mualam, N. (Nir). (2019). A framework for analyzing the effectiveness and efficiency of land readjustment regulations: Comparison of Germany, Spain and Israel. Land Use Policy, 87. doi:10.1016/j.landusepol.2019.104077