Public bodies often pursue alternative funding of public infrastructure by using developer obligations. These are contributions made in exchange of land-use regulation decisions. Non-negotiable obligations support on detailed legislation, but negotiable obligations much less and often have a local character. In Spain, negotiable obligations were introduced in the 1980s. As in other countries, in Spain, they increased initially as a response of low effectiveness of non-negotiable obligations, but they were not always transparent and with time became regulated. Differently than in other countries, Spain introduced in the 1990s a peculiar land readjustment regulation that stimulated competition and hence negotiated contributions.

Additional Metadata
Keywords developer obligations, inclusionary housing zoning, land readjustment, land value capture, transparency, urban development, Urban infrastructure
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1080/17535069.2019.1629619, hdl.handle.net/1765/117961
Journal Urban Research and Practice
Citation
Muñoz Gielen, D, & García Pastor, M. (Marta). (2019). Transparency and evolution in the use of negotiated developer obligations within land readjustment in Spain. Urban Research and Practice. doi:10.1080/17535069.2019.1629619