Purpose: Infection near metal implants is a problem that presents challenging treatment dilemmas for physicians. The aim of this study was to analyse the efficacy of two treatment protocols for acute fracture-related infections. Methods: Seventy-one patients in two level-1 trauma centres in the Netherlands were retrospectively included in this study. These trauma centres had different standardised protocols for acute infection after osteosynthesis: 39 patients were selected from protocol A and 32 from protocol B. Both protocols involve immediate surgical debridement and soft tissue coverage, but differ in antibiotic approach: (A) immediate empirical combination antibiotic therapy with rifampicin, or (B) postponed (1–5 days) targeted antibiotic therapy. The primary outcome of these protocols was success, defined as a fracture healing in the absence of infection. The secondary outcome was antibiotic resistance patterns. Logistic regression was conducted on patients and treatment-related factors in association with primary success. Results: Primary success was achieved in 72% of protocol A patients, in 47% of those in protocol B (P = 0.033), and with prolongation of treatment success was achieved in 90% and 78% of patients, respectively. Protocol A exhibited a better primary success rate (adjusted OR 3.45, CI 1.13–10.52) when adjusted for age and soft tissue injury. There was no significant difference in antibiotic resistance between the two protocols. Conclusion: Both protocols yielded high overall success rates. Immediate empirical antibiotics can be used safely without additional bacterial resistance and may contribute to increased success rates.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Antibiotics, Fracture, FRI, Infection, ORIF, Treatment
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00068-019-01182-6, hdl.handle.net/1765/118142
Journal European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery
Hellebrekers, P. (Pien), Verhofstad, M.H.J, Leenen, L.P.H, Varol, H. (Hilal), van Lieshout, E.M.M, & Hietbrink, F. (Falco). (2019). The effect of early broad-spectrum versus delayed narrow-spectrum antibiotic therapy on the primary cure rate of acute infection after osteosynthesis. European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery. doi:10.1007/s00068-019-01182-6