Norovirus is the most common cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis and is a burden worldwide. The increasing norovirus diversity is currently categorized into at least 10 genogroups which are further classified into more than 40 genotypes. In addition to humans, norovirus can infect a broad range of hosts including livestock, pets, and wild animals, e.g., marine mammals and bats. Little is known about norovirus infections in most non-human hosts, but the close genetic relatedness between some animal and human noroviruses coupled with lack of understanding where newly appearing human norovirus genotypes and variants are emerging from has led to the hypothesis that norovirus may not be host restricted and might be able to jump the species barrier. We have systematically reviewed the literature to describe the diversity, prevalence, and geographic distribution of noroviruses found in animals, and the pathology associated with infection. We further discuss the evidence that exists for or against interspecies transmission including surveillance data and data from in vitro and in vivo experiments.

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Keywords Caliciviridae, Norwalk, norovirus, host range, animal reservoir, pathogenesis, zoonosis, reverse zoonosis
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Journal Viruses
Villabruna, N., Koopmans, M.P.G, D.V.M., & van der Graaf, M. (2019). Animals as Reservoir for Human Norovirus. Viruses, 11(5). doi:10.3390/v11050478