To investigate the major causes and predictive factors of death in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. A total of 6591 residents aged ≥ 45 years from Shanghai Changfeng community were followed up for an average of 5.4 years. The causes of death were coded according to the 10th Revision of International Classification of Diseases. The mortality rate was calculated by person-years of follow up and age-standardized according to the 2010 Chinese census data. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model was performed to investigate the predictors of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. During the total follow-up of 35,739 person-years, 370 deaths were documented (157 from malignant neoplasms, 70 from heart diseases, 68 from cerebrovascular diseases, 75 from other causes). The age-standardized all-cause mortality rate was 798.2 per 100,000 person-years (927.9 among men and 716.7 among women). Results from multivariable analyses showed that aging, diabetes, and osteoporosis at baseline were independent predictors of all-cause mortality, with hazard ratios (HR) of 1.11 (95% CI 1.10–1.13), 1.91 (1.51–2.42), and 1.71 (1.24–2.35), respectively. The population attributable risk percent of diabetes and osteoporosis was 19.7% and 11.7%, respectively. Cigarette smoking was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality in men (HR and 95%CI 1.44, 1.01–2.06). In women, diabetes and osteoporosis were related to a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality (3.27, 1.82–5.88 and 1.89, 1.04–3.46, respectively). While in men, osteoporosis was related to a higher risk of malignant neoplasms mortality (2.39, 1.07–5.33). Malignant neoplasms, heart diseases, and cerebrovascular diseases are the leading causes of death. Aging, smoking, underweight, diabetes, and osteoporosis are independent predictors of premature death among middle-aged and elderly Chinese community population. Moreover, there may have been some differences in the causes and predictors of premature death between men and women.

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European Journal of Epidemiology
Department of Neuroscience

Wu, L. (Li), Lin, J., Hu, Y. (Yu), Zhu, C., Ma, H. (Hui), Gao, J., … Gao, X. (Xin). (2019). The major causes and risk factors of total and cause-specific mortality during 5.4-year follow-up: the Shanghai Changfeng Study. European Journal of Epidemiology. doi:10.1007/s10654-019-00543-0