IMPORTANCE Both fetal and infant growth influence obesity later in life. The association of longitudinal fetal and infant growth patterns with organ fat is unknown. OBJECTIVE To examine the associations of fetal and infant weight change with general, visceral, and organ adiposity at school age. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This cohort study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Pregnant women with a delivery date between April 2002 and January 2006 were eligible to participate. Follow-up measurements were performed for 3205 children. Data analysis of this population was performed from July 26, 2018, to February 7, 2019. EXPOSURES Fetal weight was estimated in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Infant weight was measured at 6, 12, and 24 months. Fetal and infant weight acceleration or deceleration were defined as a change in standard deviation scores greater than 0.67 between 2 ages. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Visceral fat index, pericardial fat index, and liver fat fraction were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS The sample consisted of 3205 children (1632 girls [50.9%]; mean [SD] age, 9.8 [0.3] years). Children born small for gestational age had the lowest median body mass index compared with children born appropriate for gestational age and large for gestational age (16.4 [90% range, 14.1-23.6] vs 16.9 [90% range, 14.4-22.8] vs 17.4 [90% range, 14.9-22.7]). Compared with children with normal fetal and infant growth (533 of 2370 [22.5%]), those with fetal weight deceleration followed by infant weight acceleration (263 of 2370 [11.1%]) had the highest visceral fat index (standard deviation scores, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.03-0.33; P = .02) and liver fat fraction (standard deviation scores, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.20-0.48; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Fetal and infant weight change patterns were both associated with childhood body fat, but weight change patterns in infancy tended to have larger effects. Fetal growth restriction followed by infant growth acceleration was associated with increased visceral and liver fat.,
Jama Network Open
Department of Pediatrics

Vogelezang, S, Santos, S., Toemen, L., Oei, E., Felix, J., & Jaddoe, V. (2019). Associations of Fetal and Infant Weight Change With General, Visceral, and Organ Adiposity at School Age. Jama Network Open, 2(4). doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.2843