AIM To give evidence-based recommendations on the application of ketogenic diet parenteral nutrition (KD-PN) in emergency situations. METHOD An international group of experts (n=14) researched the literature and distributed a survey among 150 expert centers. International accepted guidelines (European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism/European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition and the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition) and handbooks for parenteral nutrition were considered general standards of care. RESULTS In the literature, we identified 35 reports of patients treated by KD-PN. International guidelines and handbooks provided some conflicting information. Twenty-four expert teams from nine countries responded to the survey, reflecting the limited clinical experience. INTERPRETATION This paper highlights 23 consensus-based recommendations for safe and effective KD-PN (e.g. diet initiation, calculation, application, monitoring, and evaluation) based on the best evidence available and expert opinions.

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Journal Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
van der Louw, E., Aldaz, V., Harvey, J, Roan, M., van den Hurk, D., Cross, JH, … Dressler, A. (2019). Optimal clinical management of children receiving ketogenic parenteral nutrition: a clinical practice guide. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. doi:10.1111/dmcn.14306