Background: Intensity-modulated proton therapy is sensitive to inter-fraction variations, including density changes along the pencil-beam paths and variations in organ-shape and location. Large dayto-day variations are seen for cervical cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel method for online selection of a plan from a patient-specific library of prior plans for different anatomies, and adapt it for the daily anatomy.

Material and methods: The patient-specific library of prior plans accounting for altered target geometries was generated using a pretreatment established target motion model. Each fraction, the best fitting prior plan was selected. This prior plan was adapted using (1) a restoration of spot-positions (Bragg peaks) by adapting the energies to the new water equivalent path lengths; and (2) a spot addition to fully cover the target of the day, followed by a fast optimization of the spot-weights with the reference point method (RPM) to obtain a Pareto-optimal plan for the daily anatomy. Spot addition and spot-weight optimization could be repeated iteratively. The patient cohort consisted of six patients with in total 23 repeat-CT scans, with a prescribed dose of 45 Gy(RBE) to the primary tumor and the nodal CTV. Using a 1-plan-library (one prior plan based on all motion in the motion model) was compared to choosing from a 2-plan-library (two prior plans based on part of the motion).

Results: Applying the prior-plan adaptation method with one iteration of adding spots resulted in clinically acceptable target coverage (V95% 95% and V107% 2%) for 37/46 plans using the 1-planlibrary and 41/46 plans for the 2-plan-library. When adding spots twice, the 2-plan-library approach could obtain acceptable coverage for all scans, while the 1-plan-library approach showed V107% > 2% for 3/46 plans. Similar OAR results were obtained.

Conclusion: The automated prior-plan adaptation method can successfully adapt for the large day-today variations observed in cervical cancer patients.,
Acta Oncologica
Department of Radiation Oncology

Jagt, T.Z., Breedveld, S., Van Haveren, R., Nout, R. A., Astreinidou, E., Heijmen, BM, & Hoogeman, M. (2019). Plan-library supported automated replanning for online-adaptive intensity-modulated proton therapy of cervical cancer. Acta Oncologica. doi:10.1080/0284186x.2019.1627414