Endochondral ossification (EO) is the process by which the long bones of the body form and has proven to be a promising method in tissue engineering for achieving cell-mediated bone formation. The present review centred on state-of-the-art research pertaining to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-mediated endochondral bone formation, focusing on the role of donor cells, extracellular matrix and host immune cells during tissue-engineered bone formation. Possible research avenues to improve graft outcome and bone output were highlighted, as well as emerging research that, when applied to tissue-engineered bone grafts, offers new promise for improving the likelihood of such grafts transition from bench to bedside.

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Keywords Endochondral ossification, bone tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, extracellular matrix, vascularisation, collagen type X, immune system.
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.22203/eCM.v037a17, hdl.handle.net/1765/118921
Journal European Cells & Materials
Knuth, C., Kiernan, C., Wolvius, E.B, Narcisi, R, & Farrell, E. (2019). Understanding tissue-engineered endochondral ossification; towards improved bone formation. European Cells & Materials, 37, 277–291. doi:10.22203/eCM.v037a17