Aims: To compare characteristics of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) recipients receiving a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) with a defibrillator component (implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillation, CIED-D) vs. those without one, and to assess whether carrying such a device contiguously with an LVAD is associated with outcomes. Methods and results: Overall, 448 patients were analysed (mean age 52 ± 13 years, 82% male) in the multicentre European PCHF-VAD registry. To account for all active CIED-Ds during ongoing LVAD treatment, outcome analyses were performed by a time-varying analysis with active CIED-D status post-LVAD as the time-varying covariate. At the time of LVAD implantation, 235 patients (52%) had an active CIED-D. Median time on LVAD support was 1.1 years (interquartile range 0.5–2.0 years). A reduction of 36% in the risk of all-cause mortality was observed in patients with an active CIED-D [hazard ratio (HR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46–0.91; P = 0.012), increasing to 41% after. adjustment for baseline covariates (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.40–0.87; P = 0.008) and 39% after propensity score adjustment (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.39–0.94; P = 0.027). Other than CIED-D, age, LVAD implant as redo surgery, number of ventricular arrhythmia episodes and use of vasopressors pre-LVAD were remaining significant risk factors of all-cause mortality. Incident ventricular arrhythmias post-LVAD portended a 2.4-fold and 2.6-fold increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death, respectively; carrying an active CIED-D remained associated with a 47% and 43% reduction in these events, respectively. Conclusions: In an analysis accounting for all active CIED-Ds, including those implanted during LVAD support, carrying such a device was associated with significantly better survival during LVAD support.

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Keywords Advanced heart failure, Cardiac implantable electronic device, Cardiac resynchronization therapy, Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, Left ventricular assist devices, Mortality, Ventricular arrhythmia
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Journal European Journal of Heart Failure
Cikes, M. (Maja), Jakus, N. (Nina), Claggett, B. (Brian), Brugts, J.J, Timmermans, P. (Philippe), Pouleur, A.-C. (Anne-Catherine), … Ruschitzka, F. (2019). Cardiac implantable electronic devices with a defibrillator component and all-cause mortality in left ventricular assist device carriers: results from the PCHF-VAD registry. European Journal of Heart Failure. doi:10.1002/ejhf.1568