Lately, increasing attention has been paid to the use of music interventions in healthcare. A music intervention is the use of music in order to affect a specific condition. The Thesis ‘The Sound of Medicine: Evidence-based Music Interventions in Healthcare Practice’ has focused on the use of music interventions to affect anxiety and pain before, during and after surgery in adults, as well as in children having surgery. Also, the effect of music interventions on brain function, behavior, immunologic and physiologic aspects in fundamental research have been summarized in a systematic review.
In addition, a preoperative anxiety scale has been tested for applicability in our youngest patient population, and the role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting preoperative parental anxiety were tested.
Results from this thesis show that music interventions affect a biologic process, cascade in the body. A statistically significant and clinical relevant decrease of perioperative anxiety and pain was found in adults. Music interventions also seem to decrease perioperative discomfort in children, especially in children who are more anxious before the procedure.
Preoperative anxiety in children also under 2 years of age can be performed by using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety scale. Given the high number of anxious parents preoperatively, there should be more focus on identification and accompaniment of anxious parents and their children in the perioperative process.

Additional Metadata
Keywords music interventions, surgery, perioperative*, anxiety, pain, patients, hypertension, m-YPAS-SF, preoperative anxiety, validation, fundamental, rodents
Promotor M. van Dijk (Monique) , R.M.H. Wijnen (René) , J. Jeekel (Hans)
Publisher Erasmus University Rotterdam
ISBN 978-94-6375-451-4
Persistent URL
Note For copyright reasons there is a partial embargo for this dissertation
Kühlmann, A.Y.R. (2019, September 25). The Sound of Medicine : Evidence-based music interventions in healthcare practice. Erasmus University Rotterdam. Retrieved from