Many studies focus on the competitive characteristics of cities–such as accessibility, infrastructure, knowledge, creativity, institutions, face-to-face-contacts, tacit knowledge, and business interaction–and how these attract FDI, firms, and people. However, few studies focus on the spatial characteristics of urban clusters. In this study, knowledge-intensive FDI into 15 Northwestern European cities was explored. The FDI was geo-mapped at a district level, and the characteristics of these districts regarding proximity, functionality, urbanity and spatial quality were classified. The results revealed the spatial indicators that attract FDI in knowledge-intensive industrial activities.

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Keywords business districts, FDI, Global networks, interaction environments, spatial location factors
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Journal European Planning Studies
van 't Hoff, M. (Mattijs), & Wall, R.S. (2019). Business districts: the spatial characteristics of FDI within cities. European Planning Studies. doi:10.1080/09654313.2019.1651830