Community-based initiatives (CBIs) are thriving in Western countries. In CBIs, citizens take a leading role in providing public services and goods. CBIs have been acclaimed for their innovativeness, problem-solving capacity, and legitimacy. However, we lack large N studies on performance of CBIs and its antecedents. This article develops and tests a model that identifies relationships between performance and four antecedents by using survey data on CBIs collected in the Netherlands (N = 671). Using structural equation modelling, positive direct and indirect relationships between transformational leadership, boundary spanning leadership, organizational capacity, social capital ties, government support, and performance are found.