Introduction Beneficial effects of music have been described on several cognitive domains, task performance, stress, anxiety and pain. Greater surgical skill is a factor that has been associated with improved patient outcome. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the effect of music on surgical performance.

Methods An exhaustive literature search was performed. The following databases were searched: Embase, Medline Ovid, Web of Science, Cochrane CENTAL, PsycINFO Ovid, CINAHL EBSCOhost, ERIC EBSCOhost and Google Scholar. All prospective studies that assessed the effect of a music intervention compared to either another auditory condition or silence on surgical performance were included in a qualitative synthesis. The study was registered in the PROSPERO-database (CRD42018092021).

Results The literature search identified 3492 articles of which 9 studies (212 participants) were included. Beneficial effects of music were reported on time to task completion, instrument handling, quality of surgical task performance and general surgical performance. Furthermore, a beneficial effect of music on muscle activation was observed.

Conclusion Although beneficial effects of music on surgical performance have been observed, there is insufficient evidence to definitively conclude that music has a beneficial effect on surgical performance in the simulated setting. Future studies should be conducted using greater numbers of participants focusing on a more limited range of tasks, as well as validation in the live operating environment.

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Keywords Music, Surgical performance, Surgery, Surgical skil, l Surgical education, Laparoscopy
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Journal Surgical Endoscopy: surgical and interventional techniques
Oomens, P., Fu, V.X., Kleinrensink, G.J, & Jeekel, J. (2019). The effect of music on simulated surgical performance: a systematic review. Surgical Endoscopy: surgical and interventional techniques, 33(9), 2774–2784. doi:10.1007/s00464-019-06868-x