(1) Background: Markers identifying which patients with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) will benefit from cabazitaxel therapy are currently lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify markers associated with outcome to cabazitaxel therapy based on counts and gene expression profiles of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). (2) Methods: From 120 mCRPC patients, CellSearch enriched CTCs were obtained at baseline and after 6 weeks of cabazitaxel therapy. Furthermore, 91 genes associated with prostate cancer were measured in mRNA of these CTCs. (3) Results: In 114 mCRPC patients with an evaluable CTC count, the CTC count was independently associated with poor progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in multivariable analysis with other commonly used variables associated with outcome in mCRPC (age, prostate specific antigen (PSA), alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), albumin, hemoglobin), together with alkaline phosphatase and hemoglobin. A five-gene expression profile was generated to predict for outcome to cabazitaxel therapy. However, even though this signature was associated with OS in univariate analysis, this was not the case in the multivariate analysis for OS nor for PFS. (4) Conclusion: The established five-gene expression profile in CTCs was not independently associated with PFS nor OS. However, along with alkaline phosphatase and hemoglobin, CTC-count is independently associated with PFS and OS in mCRPC patients who are treated with cabazitaxel.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Biomarker, Circulating tumor cells, CTCs, MCRPC, Prostate cancer
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11081212, hdl.handle.net/1765/119566
Journal Cancers
De Kruijff, I.E. (Ingeborg E.), Sieuwerts, A.M, Onstenk, W, Kraan, J, Smid, M, Van, M, … Sleijfer, S. (2019). Circulating tumor cell enumeration and characterization in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with cabazitaxel. Cancers, 11(8). doi:10.3390/cancers11081212