Microcirculation is a system composed of interconnected microvessels, which is responsible for the distribution of oxygenated blood among and within organs according to regional metabolic demand. Critical medical conditions, e. g., sepsis, and heart failure are known triggers of microcirculatory disturbance, which usually develops early in such clinical pictures and represents an independent risk factor for mortality. Therefore, hemodynamic resuscitation aiming at restoring microcirculatory perfusion is of paramount importance. Until recently, however, resuscitation protocols were based on macrohemodynamic variables, which increases the risk of under or over resuscitation. The introduction of hand-held video-microscopy (HVM) into clinical practice has allowed real-time analysis of microcirculatory variables at the bedside and, hence, favored a more individualized approach. In the cardiac intensive care unit scenario, HVM provides essential information on patients' hemodynamic status, e. g., to classify the type of shock, to adequate the dosage of vasopressors or inotropes according to demand and define safer limits, to guide fluid therapy and red blood cell transfusion, to evaluate response to treatment, among others. Nevertheless, several drawbacks have to be addressed before HVM becomes a standard of care.

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Keywords cardiologic critical care, coronary microcirculation, Cytocam-IDF, heart surgery, microcirculation, oxygen transport, shock
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2019.08.008, hdl.handle.net/1765/119630
Journal Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Slovinski, A.P. (Augusto Passoni), Hajjar, L.A. (Ludhmila Abrahão), & Ince, C. (Can). (2019). Microcirculation in Cardiovascular Diseases. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. doi:10.1053/j.jvca.2019.08.008