Objective:Neuropsychological tests are important instruments to determine a cognitive profile, giving insight into the etiology of dementia; however, these tests cannot readily be used in culturally diverse, low-educated populations, due to their dependence upon (Western) culture, education, and literacy. In this review we aim to give an overview of studies investigating domain-specific cognitive tests used to assess dementia in non-Western, low-educated populations. The second aim was to examine the quality of these studies and of the adaptations for culturally, linguistically, and educationally diverse populations.Method:A systematic review was performed using six databases, without restrictions on the year or language of publication.Results:Forty-four studies were included, stemming mainly from Brazil, Hong Kong, Korea, and considering Hispanics/Latinos residing in the USA. Most studies focused on Alzheimer's disease (n = 17) or unspecified dementia (n = 16). Memory (n = 18) was studied most often, using 14 different tests. The traditional Western tests in the domains of attention (n = 8) and construction (n = 15), were unsuitable for low-educated patients. There was little variety in instruments measuring executive functioning (two tests, n = 13), and language (n = 12, of which 10 were naming tests). Many studies did not report a thorough adaptation procedure (n = 39) or blinding procedures (n = 29).Conclusions:Various formats of memory tests seem suitable for low-educated, non-Western populations. Promising tasks in other cognitive domains are the Stick Design Test, Five Digit Test, and verbal fluency test. Further research is needed regarding cross-cultural instruments measuring executive functioning and language in low-educated people.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Alzheimer dementia, Cognition, Cross-cultural comparison, Education, Literacy, Mild cognitive impairment, Neurodegenerative diseases
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1355617719000894, hdl.handle.net/1765/119727
Journal Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
Citation
Franzen, S. (Sanne), van den Berg, E, Goudsmit, M. (Miriam), Jurgens, C.K. (Caroline K.), Van De Wiel, L. (Lotte), Kalkisim, Y. (Yuled), … Papma, J.M. (2019). A Systematic Review of Neuropsychological Tests for the Assessment of Dementia in Non-Western, Low-Educated or Illiterate Populations. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. doi:10.1017/S1355617719000894