Objective: To investigate how, and to what extent, patient-reported quality of care is measured in Anthroposophic and Integrative Medicine (AM/IM). Methods: Scoping review of evaluation studies of patient-reported quality of care and development studies of PREMs and/or PROMs in AM/IM, using five stages of Arksey's methodological framework. Search strategy: Literature search in twelve relevant databases. Data extraction: Basic information, added categories: Focus; PREMs/PROMs; Evaluation measures; Patient involvement; Use of results. Results: Sixty-four included studies: 30 quantitative, 20 qualitative and 14 mixed-methods studies. Quantitative studies showed a wide variety of instruments and qualitative studies showed a meaningful list of evaluation themes. Most prevalent themes: Agency & Empowerment; Patient-provider relationship; Perceived effectiveness; Coping & Psychological functioning; Inner awareness; Meaning; and General wellbeing. Seven studies report concrete, coherent, patient-derived evaluation measures with emphasis on PROMs and/or PREMs. Conclusion: Patient-reported quality of care was not measured in a standardised way. Knowledge gap: in general, quantitative studies lack patient-derived measures and qualitative studies lack development of concrete evaluation measures. Many AM/IM evaluation aspects connect with patient-centred care. Practice implication: The international field of AM/IM would benefit from the development of a core set of validated PROMs and PREMs to further enhance its scientific underpinning.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Anthroposophic Medicine, Health services research, Instrument development, Integrative Medicine, Patient participation, Patient reported experience measures, Patient reported outcome measures, Patient-centred-care, Patient-reported quality of care, Scoping review
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2019.09.010, hdl.handle.net/1765/119813
Journal Patient Education and Counseling
Citation
Koster, E.B. (Evi B.), Baars, E.W. (Erik W.), & Delnoij, D.M.J. (2019). Patient-reported quality of care in anthroposophic and integrative medicine: A scoping review. Patient Education and Counseling. doi:10.1016/j.pec.2019.09.010