Objective: To investigate how, and to what extent, patient-reported quality of care is measured in Anthroposophic and Integrative Medicine (AM/IM). Methods: Scoping review of evaluation studies of patient-reported quality of care and development studies of PREMs and/or PROMs in AM/IM, using five stages of Arksey's methodological framework. Search strategy: Literature search in twelve relevant databases. Data extraction: Basic information, added categories: Focus; PREMs/PROMs; Evaluation measures; Patient involvement; Use of results. Results: Sixty-four included studies: 30 quantitative, 20 qualitative and 14 mixed-methods studies. Quantitative studies showed a wide variety of instruments and qualitative studies showed a meaningful list of evaluation themes. Most prevalent themes: Agency & Empowerment; Patient-provider relationship; Perceived effectiveness; Coping & Psychological functioning; Inner awareness; Meaning; and General wellbeing. Seven studies report concrete, coherent, patient-derived evaluation measures with emphasis on PROMs and/or PREMs. Conclusion: Patient-reported quality of care was not measured in a standardised way. Knowledge gap: in general, quantitative studies lack patient-derived measures and qualitative studies lack development of concrete evaluation measures. Many AM/IM evaluation aspects connect with patient-centred care. Practice implication: The international field of AM/IM would benefit from the development of a core set of validated PROMs and PREMs to further enhance its scientific underpinning.

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Keywords Anthroposophic Medicine, Health services research, Instrument development, Integrative Medicine, Patient participation, Patient reported experience measures, Patient reported outcome measures, Patient-centred-care, Patient-reported quality of care, Scoping review
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2019.09.010, hdl.handle.net/1765/119813
Journal Patient Education and Counseling
Koster, E.B. (Evi B.), Baars, E.W. (Erik W.), & Delnoij, D.M.J. (2019). Patient-reported quality of care in anthroposophic and integrative medicine: A scoping review. Patient Education and Counseling. doi:10.1016/j.pec.2019.09.010