Background: Intra-operative image acquisition can be obtained indirectly (via verbal request to a technician) or directly (executed at the tableside, by a surgeon stepping on a foot pedal). Direct image acquisition could reduce the exposure time and thus the risk of radiation damage. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare direct surgeon-controlled fluoroscopy with indirect technician-operated fluoroscopy during internal fixation of a hip fracture. Methods: From March 5, 2014 to August 19, 2015, 100 patients who had sustained a hip fracture that required internal fixation were enrolled. Patients were randomized between direct surgeon-controlled image acquisition using a foot pedal (n = 52) and indirect image acquisition by a radiology technician (n = 48). The primary outcome measure was the radiation exposure time; secondary outcome measures were the associated effective radiation dose and the dose area product. (DAP) Results: A total of 96 patients (with a median age of 84 years) were enrolled in this study. Eighty-nine (93%) patients had a pertrochanteric fracture. No statistically significant differences between direct image acquisition and indirect image acquisition were found for overall radiation time, total radiation dose or DAP for the total population. When adjusted for potential confounders, a difference in overall radiation time of 18.50 s (95% CI 2.19; 34.81, p = 0.027) was found in favour of indirect image acquisition. Conclusion: This study showed statistically significantly lower radiation duration using indirect fluoroscopy for the total population and the pertrochanteric fracture subgroup when adjusted for several confounders. No significant effect on radiation dose and DAP was found.

Femoral fractures, Fluoroscopy, Hip fractures, Radiation dosage, Radiation protection,
Injury: International Journal of the Care of the Injured
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Roukema, G.R, de Jong, L, Van Rijckevorsel, V.A.J.I.M. (Veronique A.J.I.M.), van Onkelen, R.S, Bekken, J.A, van der Vlies, C.H, & van Lieshout, E.M.M. (2019). Radiation exposure during direct versus indirect image acquisition during fluoroscopy-controlled internal fixation of a hip fracture: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Injury: International Journal of the Care of the Injured. doi:10.1016/j.injury.2019.09.035