As gene transfer with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors is starting to enter clinical practice, this review examines the impact of vector capsid choice in liver-directed gene transfer for hemophilia. Given that there are multiple clinical trials completed and ongoing in this field, it is important to review the clinical evidence, particularly as a range of AAV-vector serotypes including AAV2, AAV5, AAV8, and AAV10 have been tested. Although there have been a number of successful trials, the development of two investigational AAV vectors for hemophilia B has been discontinued because they did not meet efficacy and/or safety expectations. Whether this difference between success and failure of gene transfer approaches reflects capsid choice, vector design, manufacturing system, or other variables is a question of great interest. Here, we examine the body of evidence across trials to determine the possible influences of serotype choice on key clinical outcomes such as safety, vector clearance, treatment eligibility, occurrence of transaminase elevations, activation of capsid-directed cytotoxic T cell responses, and clinical efficacy. In summary, gene transfer requires a balance between achieving sufficient transgene expression and minimizing destructive immune responses, which may be affected by AAV-vector serotype choice.

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Journal Molecular Therapy - Methods and Clinical Development
Pipe, S. (Steven), Leebeek, F.W.G, Ferreira, V, Sawyer, E.K. (Eileen K.), & Pasi, J. (2019). Clinical Considerations for Capsid Choice in the Development of Liver-Targeted AAV-Based Gene Transfer. Molecular Therapy - Methods and Clinical Development (Vol. 15, pp. 170–178). doi:10.1016/j.omtm.2019.08.015