The present study investigated the association between transgender congruence and self-esteem in transgender and gender-nonconforming (TGNC) individuals and whether rumination about gender identity atemporally meditates this relationship. In a cross-sectional study, 323 TGNC individuals completed an online survey measuring the 2 factors of transgender congruence (i.e., appearance congruence and gender identity acceptance), rumination about gender identity, and self-esteem. Data were analyzed using a mediation analysis with gender identity acceptance and appearance congruence as predictors, rumination about gender identity as mediator, and self-esteem as outcome. The results revealed positive associations between both factors of transgender congruence and self-esteem. Furthermore, it was found that these relationships were partially atemporally mediated by rumination about gender identity. More specifically, higher levels of appearance congruence and gender identity acceptance were associated with higher levels of self-esteem through less rumination about gender identity. These results suggest that transgender congruence and rumination about gender identity are factors that can be addressed in clinical settings to increase self-esteem and other components of mental health in TGNC individuals.

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Keywords transgender and gender-nonconforming, transgender congruence, rumination about gender identity, self-esteem, mental health
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Journal Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
van den Brink, Femke, Vollmann, M, & van Weelie, S. (2019). Relationships between transgender congruence, gender identity rumination, and self-esteem in transgender and gender non-conforming individuals. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity. doi:10.1037/sgd0000357