CONTEXT: Previous studies suggest that maternal thyroid function affects fetal growth, but the association between combined thyroid hormones from early to late pregnancy and newborn birth weight remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To explore the association of maternal thyroid function during early and late pregnancy with birth weight. DESIGN: A large prospective cohort study of a Chinese population. SETTING: This study recruited pregnant women who underwent first-trimester prenatal screenings at the International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital between January 2013 and December 2016. PARTICIPANTS: This study enrolled 46,186 mothers in whom TSH, free thyroxine (FT4), T3, and thyroid peroxidase antibody concentrations were measured in the first and third trimesters and in whom data on birth weight were available. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Birth weight, small for gestational age, large for gestational age (LGA). RESULTS: A higher TSH or FT4 concentration, or a lower T3 concentration, during the first or third trimester was associated with a lower birth weight. The lowest percentiles of maternal FT4 (FT4 < 2.5th percentile) in both trimesters were associated with a 0.34-SD higher birth weight. The effect estimates were greater in those in the first trimester (0.23 SD) or in the third trimester (0.17 SD). The association of maternal TSH and FT4 with birth weight differed according to fetal sex. CONCLUSIONS: Persistently low FT4 concentrations throughout pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight and an increased risk of LGA. Based on these findings, we recommend monitoring mildly altered concentrations of thyroid hormone throughout pregnancy.,
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Department of Internal Medicine

Zhang, C. (Chen), Yang, X. (Xi), Zhang, Y. (Yong), Guo, F. (Fei), Yang, S. (Shuai), Peeters, R., … Huang, H.-F. (He-Feng). (2019). Association Between Maternal Thyroid Hormones and Birth Weight at Early and Late Pregnancy. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 104(12), 5853–5863. doi:10.1210/jc.2019-00390