Previous studies indicated existing, albeit limited, genetic-geographic population substructure in the Dutch population based on genome-wide data and a lack of this for mitochondrial SNP based data. Despite the aforementioned studies, Y-chromosomal SNP data from the Netherlands remain scarce and do not cover the territory of the Netherlands well enough to allow a reliable investigation of genetic-geographic population substructure. Here we provide the first substantial dataset of detailed spatial Y-chromosomal haplogroup information in 2085 males collected across the Netherlands and supplemented with previously published data from northern Belgium. We found Y-chromosomal evidence for genetic–geographic population substructure, and several Y-haplogroups demonstrating significant clinal frequency distributions in different directions. By means of prediction surface maps we could visualize (complex) distribution patterns of individual Y-haplogroups in detail. These results highlight the value of a micro-geographic approach and are of great use for forensic and epidemiological investigations and our understanding of the Dutch population history. Moreover, the previously noted absence of genetic-geographic population substructure in the Netherlands based on mitochondrial DNA in contrast to our Y-chromosome results, hints at different population histories for women and men in the Netherlands.

Additional Metadata
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-019-0496-0, hdl.handle.net/1765/120439
Journal European Journal of Human Genetics
Citation
Altena, E, Smeding, R. (Risha), van der Gaag, K, Larmuseau, M.H.D, Decorte, R, Lao Grueso, O, … de Knijff, P. (2019). The Dutch Y-chromosomal landscape. European Journal of Human Genetics. doi:10.1038/s41431-019-0496-0