Previous studies indicated existing, albeit limited, genetic-geographic population substructure in the Dutch population based on genome-wide data and a lack of this for mitochondrial SNP based data. Despite the aforementioned studies, Y-chromosomal SNP data from the Netherlands remain scarce and do not cover the territory of the Netherlands well enough to allow a reliable investigation of genetic-geographic population substructure. Here we provide the first substantial dataset of detailed spatial Y-chromosomal haplogroup information in 2085 males collected across the Netherlands and supplemented with previously published data from northern Belgium. We found Y-chromosomal evidence for genetic–geographic population substructure, and several Y-haplogroups demonstrating significant clinal frequency distributions in different directions. By means of prediction surface maps we could visualize (complex) distribution patterns of individual Y-haplogroups in detail. These results highlight the value of a micro-geographic approach and are of great use for forensic and epidemiological investigations and our understanding of the Dutch population history. Moreover, the previously noted absence of genetic-geographic population substructure in the Netherlands based on mitochondrial DNA in contrast to our Y-chromosome results, hints at different population histories for women and men in the Netherlands.,
European Journal of Human Genetics
Department of Genetic Identification

Altena, E., Smeding, R. (Risha), van der Gaag, K., Larmuseau, M., Decorte, R., Lao Grueso, O., … de Knijff, P. (2019). The Dutch Y-chromosomal landscape. European Journal of Human Genetics. doi:10.1038/s41431-019-0496-0