Objective: Acute kidney injury requiring continuous renal replacement therapy is a serious treatment-related complication in pediatric cancer and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. The purpose of this study was to assess epidemiology and outcome of these patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy in the PICU. Design: A nationwide, multicenter, retrospective, observational study. Setting: Eight PICUs of a tertiary care hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients: Pediatric cancer and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients (cancer and noncancer) who received continuous renal replacement therapy from January 2006 to July 2017 in the Netherlands. Interventions: None. Measurement and Main Results: Of 1,927 PICU admissions of pediatric cancer and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients, 68 of 70 evaluable patients who received continuous renal replacement therapy were included. Raw PICU mortality was 11.2% (216/1,972 admissions). PICU mortality of patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy was 54.4% (37/68 patients). Fluid overload (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01–1.17) and need for inotropic support (odds ratio, 6.53; 95% CI, 1.86–23.08) at the start of continuous renal replacement therapy were associated with PICU mortality. Serum creatinine levels increased above 150% of baseline 3 days before the start of continuous renal replacement therapy. Urine production did not reach the critical limit of oliguria. In contrast, body weight (fluid overload) increased already 5 days prior to continuous renal replacement therapy initiation. Conclusions: PICU mortality of pediatric cancer and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy is sadly high. Fluid overload at the initiation of continuous renal replacement therapy is the most important and earliest predictor of PICU mortality. Our results suggest that the most commonly used criteria of acute kidney injury, that is, serum creatinine and urine production, are not useful as a trigger to initiate continuous renal replacement therapy. This highlights the urgent need for prospective studies to generate recommendations for effective therapeutic interventions at an early phase in this specific patient population. (Crit Care Med 2019; 47:e893–e901) The study was approved by the institutional ethical review boards of the participating hospitals (reference number: 17– 028/C). Need for informed consent was waived. Complete details of the study design are provided in the online supplement (Supplemental Digital Content 1, http:// links.lww.com/CCM/E888).

Additional Metadata
Keywords acute kidney injury, intensive care, oncology, pediatric, renal replacement therapy, stem cell transplantation
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1097/ccm.0000000000003973, hdl.handle.net/1765/120493
Journal Critical Care Medicine
Citation
Raymakers-Janssen, P., Lilien, M, Tibboel, D, Kneyber, M.C.J., Dijkstra, S., van Woensel, J.B, … Roeleveld, N. (2019). Epidemiology and Outcome of Critically Ill Pediatric Cancer and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Patients Requiring Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: A Retrospective Nationwide Cohort Study. Critical Care Medicine, 47(11), E893–E901. doi:10.1097/ccm.0000000000003973