Background: BRCA1/2 mutations confer high lifetime risk of breast cancer, although other factors may modify this risk. Whether height or body mass index (BMI) modifies breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers remains unclear. Methods: We used Mendelian randomization approaches to evaluate the association of height and BMI on breast cancer risk, using data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 with 14 676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 11 451 cases of breast cancer. We created a height genetic score using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score using 93 BMI-associated variants. We examined both observed and genetically determined height and BMI with breast cancer risk using weighted Cox models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Observed height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (HR ¼ 1.09 per 10 cm increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] ¼ 1.0 to 1.17; P ¼ 1.17). Height genetic score was positively associated with breast cancer, although this was not statistically significant (per 10 cm increase in genetically predicted height, HR ¼ 1.04, 95% CI ¼ 0.93 to 1.17; P ¼ .47). Observed BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase, HR ¼ 0.94, 95% CI ¼ 0.90 to 0.98; P ¼ .007). BMI genetic score was also inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase in genetically predicted BMI, HR ¼ 0.87, 95% CI ¼ 0.76 to 0.98; P ¼ .02). BMI was primarily associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Conclusion: Height is associated with overall breast cancer and BMI is associated with premenopausal breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Incorporating height and BMI, particularly genetic score, into risk assessment may improve cancer management.

Additional Metadata
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djy132, hdl.handle.net/1765/120517
Journal National Cancer Institute. Journal (Print)
Citation
Qian, F., Wang, S.F., Mitchell, J.R, McGuffog, L, Barrowdale, D, & Leslie, G. (2019). Height and Body Mass Index as Modifiers of Breast Cancer Risk in BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers: A Mendelian Randomization Study. National Cancer Institute. Journal (Print), 111(4), 350–364. doi:10.1093/jnci/djy132