In recent years, high frequencies of trimethoprim resistance in urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by E. coli are have been reported. Co-resistance to other antimicrobial drugs may play a role in this increase. Therefore, we investigated whether previous use of other antimicrobial drugs was associated with trimethoprim resistance. We conducted a nested case-control study with urinary cultures with E. coli from participants of the Rotterdam Study sent in by general practitioners to the regional laboratory between 1 January 2000 and 1 April 2016. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to study the association between prior prescriptions of several antimicrobial drug groups and trimethoprim resistance using individual participant data. Urinary cultures of 1264 individuals with a UTI caused by E. coli were included. When adjusted for previous other antimicrobial drug use, a history of > 3 prescriptions of extended-spectrum penicillins (OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.10–2.55) was significantly associated with trimethoprim resistance of E. coli as was the use of > 3 prescriptions of sulfonamides and trimethoprim (OR 2.22; 95% CI 1.51–3.26). The use of > 3 prescriptions of nitrofuran derivatives was associated with a lower frequency of trimethoprim resistance (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.39–0.92), after adjustment for other antimicrobial drug prescriptions. We found that previous use of extended-spectrum penicillins is associated with trimethoprim resistance. On the contrary, previous nitrofurantoin use was associated with a lower frequency of trimethoprim resistance. Especially in individuals with recurrent UTI, co-resistance should be taken into account and susceptibility testing before starting trimethoprim should be considered.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Antimicrobial drugs, Beta-lactam antibacterials, E. coli, Nitrofuran derivatives, Sulfonamides and trimethoprim, Trimethoprim resistance, UTIs
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-019-03672-2, hdl.handle.net/1765/120612
Journal European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases: an international journal on pathogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy, and prevention of infectious diseases
Citation
Mulder, M, Verbon, A, Lous, J.J, Goessens, W. (W.), & Stricker, B.H.Ch. (2019). Use of other antimicrobial drugs is associated with trimethoprim resistance in patients with urinary tract infections caused by E. coli. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases: an international journal on pathogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy, and prevention of infectious diseases. doi:10.1007/s10096-019-03672-2