Background and Aims: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are increasingly observed together in clinical practice, and development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) represents another leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Our aims were to determine whether biopsy-proven NASH impacts clinical outcomes in CHB patients and assess prognostic risk factors. Approach and Results: CHB patients attending two tertiary centers in North America and Europe over 13 years with available clinical and biopsy data were included. Patients were categorized as no-NASH or probable/definite NASH based on standardized histological assessment. Clinical events (death, decompensation, transplant, and hepatoma) were evaluated, and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to analyze the incidence of events. There were 1,089 CHB patients, classified as no-NASH (n = 904, 83%) or NASH (n = 185, 17%), with 52 (6%) versus 27 (15%) experiencing outcome events during follow-up, respectively. In the multivariable analysis adjusting for age, sex, hepatitis B e antigen serostatus, and diabetes, the presence of NASH and concomitant advanced fibrosis (AF) was significantly associated with clinical outcomes (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 4.8 [2.6-9.0], P < 0.01) when compared to absence of NASH and AF (reference). NASH and AF were associated with a greater risk of outcomes compared to AF (P = 0.01) or NASH alone (P < 0.01). Of the three histological determinants of NASH, ballooning and inflammation, but not steatosis, were independently associated with clinical outcomes (P < 0.05) in place of NASH. NASH was significantly associated with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and death (P < 0.01) but not decompensation (P = 0.33). Conclusions: In our large combined tertiary center cohort, patients with concomitant NASH and CHB had more AF and shorter time to development of liver-related outcomes or death compared to patients with CHB alone. Among patients with AF, superimposed NASH predicted poorer clinical outcomes.

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Journal Hepatology
Choi, H.S.J. (Hannah S.J.), Brouwer, W.P, Zanjir, W.M.R. (Wayel M.R.), de Man, R.A, Feld, J.J, Hansen, B.E, … Patel, K. (2019). Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Is Associated With Liver-Related Outcomes and All-Cause Mortality in Chronic Hepatitis B. Hepatology. doi:10.1002/hep.30857