Objective: The risk factors obesity and reduced mobility are not well known in the development of a Venous Leg Ulcer (VLU). The aim of this scoping review is to explore the mechanisms by which obesity and reduced mobility contribute the development of a VLU in patients with Chronic Venous Disease (CVD). Methods: For this scoping review a search was performed in May 2019 in the Cochrane Library and Pubmed to identify studies on the working mechanisms of obesity and mobility in developing a VLU. Hand searches were performed to find additional studies explaining the working mechanisms (indirectly related to the VLU). Two reviewers independently reviewed the abstracts and full-text articles. Results: Twenty-eight studies met our eligibility criteria. Disturbed range of ankle motion and gait can lead to a reduced Calf Muscle Pump (CMP) function which leading to a venous outflow disorder. Increased abdominal pressure due to obesity can lead to a venous outflow obstruction and increased adipose tissue mass results in an increase in adipokine secretion. The venous outflow disorder, outflow obstruction and increased adipokine secretion can all lead to chronic systemic inflammation, increased endothelial permeability and hence microcirculatory dysfunction. This alone can result in a VLU. Conclusion: Obesity and reduced mobility can lead to a reduction of the CMP function, an increase in abdominal pressure and an increase in adipose tissue mass. This can simultaneously lead to haemodynamic changes in the macro- and microcirculation of the lower extremities and eventually in a VLU. In patients with obesity and reduced mobility the microcirculation alone can lead to skin changes and eventually a VLU. Therefore, early recognition of CVD symptoms in patients with obesity and reduced mobility is crucial to diagnose and treat CVD to prevent a VLU.

doi.org/10.1016/j.jtv.2019.10.002, hdl.handle.net/1765/120909
Journal of Tissue Viability
Department of Dermatology

Meulendijks, A.M. (A. M.), Franssen, W.M.A. (W. M.A.), Schoonhoven, L., & Neumann, H.A.M. (H. A.M.). (2019). A scoping review on Chronic Venous Disease and the development of a Venous Leg Ulcer: The role of obesity and mobility. Journal of Tissue Viability. doi:10.1016/j.jtv.2019.10.002