The present research examined how self-sacrificial leadership predicts leadership effectiveness as a function of leader’s display of self-confidence. Results from a scenario experiment, a laboratory experiment, and a cross-sectional survey yielded consistent evidence that the effects of both leadership elements are stronger in conjunction than on their own. Moreover, the experimental studies also showed that the interactive effect on leadership effectiveness was mediated by collective identification. It is concluded that more research is needed focusing on the interactions between different leadership behaviors and the psychological processes underlying these effects.,
ERIM Top-Core Articles
Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
Erasmus Research Institute of Management

de Cremer, D., & van Knippenberg, D. (2004). Leader self-sacrifice and leadership effectiveness: The moderating role of leader self-confidence. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 95(2), 140–155. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2004.04.002