Orofacial congenital defects such as cleft lip and/or palate are associated with impaired muscle regeneration and fibrosis after surgery. Also, other orofacial reconstructions or trauma may end up in defective muscle regeneration and fibrosis. The aim of this review is to discuss current knowledge on the development and regeneration of orofacial muscles in comparison to trunk and limb muscles. The orofacial muscles include the tongue muscles and the branchiomeric muscles in the lower face. Their main functions are chewing, swallowing, and speech. All orofacial muscles originate from the mesoderm of the pharyngeal arches under the control of cranial neural crest cells. Research in vertebrate models indicates that the molecular regulation of orofacial muscle development is different from that of trunk and limb muscles. In addition, the regenerative ability of orofacial muscles is lower, and they develop more fibrosis than other skeletal muscles. Therefore, specific approaches need to be developed to stimulate orofacial muscle regeneration. Regeneration may be stimulated by growth factors such fibroblast growth factors and hepatocyte growth factor, while fibrosis may be reduced by targeting the transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1)/myofibroblast axis. New approaches that combine these 2 aspects will improve the surgical treatment of orofacial muscle defects.

Additional Metadata
Keywords cleft palate, fibrosis, growth factors, satellite cells, skeletal muscle, tissue regeneration
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022034519883673, hdl.handle.net/1765/121448
Journal Journal of Dental Research
Citation
Rosero Salazar, D.H. (D. H.), Carvajal Monroy, P.L. (P. L.), Wagener, F.A.D.T.G. (F. A.D.T.G.), & von den Hoff, J. (2019). Orofacial Muscles: Embryonic Development and Regeneration after Injury. Journal of Dental Research. doi:10.1177/0022034519883673