Backgrounds: Transcatheter-implanted aortic valve infective endocarditis (TAVI-IE) is difficult to diagnose when relying on the Duke Criteria. Our aim was to assess the additional diagnostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission/computed tomography (PET/CT) and cardiac computed tomography angiography (CTA) in suspected TAVI-IE. Methods: A multicenter retrospective analysis was performed in all patients who underwent 18F-FDG-PET/CT and/or CTA with suspected TAVI-IE. Patients were first classified with Duke Criteria and after adding 18F-FDG-PET/CT and CTA, they were classified with European Society of Cardiology (ESC) criteria. The final diagnosis was determined by our Endocarditis Team based on ESC guideline recommendations. Results: Thirty patients with suspected TAVI-IE were included. 18F-FDG-PET/CT was performed in all patients and Cardiac CTA in 14/30. Using the Modified Duke Criteria, patients were classified as 3% rejected (1/30), 73% possible (22/30), and 23% definite (7/30) TAVI-IE. Adding 18F-FDG-PET/CT and CTA supported the reclassification of 10 of the 22 possible cases as “definite TAVI-IE” (5/22) or “rejected TAVI-IE” (5/22). This changed the final diagnosis to 20% rejected (6/30), 40% possible (12/30), and 40% definite (12/30) TAVI-IE. Conclusions: Addition of 18F-FDG-PET/CT and/or CTA changed the final diagnosis in 33% of patients and proved to be a valuable diagnostic tool in patients with suspected TAVI-IE.

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Journal of Nuclear Cardiology
Department of Radiology

Wahadat, A.R. (Ali R.), Tanis, W., Swart, L., Scholtens, A. M., Krestin, G., van Mieghem, N., … Budde, R. (2019). Added value of 18F-FDG-PET/CT and cardiac CTA in suspected transcatheter aortic valve endocarditis. Journal of Nuclear Cardiology. doi:10.1007/s12350-019-01963-x