The insightful overview by Sir Michael Rutter (2012, this issue) on gene– environment interdependence comes about 10 years after the breakthrough Science publications on gene–environment interactions (G6E) involving the MAOA and 5-HTT genes by Caspi et al. (2002, 2003). Since then, a field of research has burgeoned that has produced replications as well as intriguing new evidence of gene–environment interdependence. At the same time, however, the field has witnessed a growing scepticism about the relevance of studying gene–environment interactions and has seen replication failures (see Duncan & Keller, 2011; Risch et al., 2009). Against this backdrop, we comment and elaborate on several of the key issues raised by Rutter, and suggest some directions for future research on G6E. Specifically, we discuss (1) replication issues; (2) the crucial role of experiments in understanding gene– environment interdependence; (3) current unknowns with regard to differential susceptibility; and (4) clinical and practical implications of G6E research.

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European Journal of Developmental Psychology

Overbeek, G., Weeland, J., & Chhangur, R. (2012). Commentary research on gene–environment interdependence: Honing the tools and examining the angles. European Journal of Developmental Psychology. doi:10.1080/17405629.2012.690603