The Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model was introduced in the 00’s to explain the causes of burnout. Later it matured into JD-R theory that can explain how various employee and organizational outcomes develop. Job demands are responsible for the health impairment process, whereas job resources initiate a motivational process. These processes occur simultaneously and have unique as well as interactive effects on outcomes. The role of the individual in the form of personal resources was added in the JD-R theory more recently. The aim of the current chapter is twofold. First, we will present a brief overview of the propositions of JD-R theory. After presenting the evidence supporting the JD-R theory, we will critically evaluate the theory. Second, expanding the role of the individual in the JD-R theory even further, we will go on and present strategies that individuals may use to (i) deal directly with the unfavorable effects of job characteristics including actual or anticipated loss of resources, namely coping and recovery; (ii) maximize favorable effects, goal achievement and avoid losses, i.e., self-regulation and (iii) alter job characteristics such that they are less demanding and more motivating, i.e., job crafting. It is discussed that individual strategies can be integrated in the JD-R theory, both as a mediator and a moderator of both processes. It is our hope that JD-R theory will continue to inspire researchers and practitioners who want to promote employee well-being and effective organizational functioning.

, , , , ,
Department of Industrial and Organizational Psychology

Demerouti, E., Bakker, A., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2019). Job Demands-Resources theory and the role of individual cognitive and behavioral strategies. In The fun and frustration of modern working life: Contributions from an occupational health psychology perspective. Retrieved from