Purpose: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is effective for metastatic/inoperable neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Imaging response assessment is usually efficient subsequent to treatment completion. Blood biomarkers such as PRRT Predictive Quotient (PPQ) and NETest are effective in real-time. PPQ predicts PRRT efficacy; NETest monitors disease. We prospectively evaluated: (1) NETest as a surrogate biomarker for RECIST; (2) the correlation of NETest levels with PPQ prediction. Methods: Three independent 177Lu-PRRT-treated GEP-NET and lung cohorts (Meldola, Italy: n = 72; Bad-Berka, Germany: n = 44; Rotterdam, Netherlands: n = 41). Treatment response: RECIST1.1 (responder (stable, partial, and complete response) vs non-responder). Blood sampling: pre-PRRT, before each cycle and follow-up (2–12 months). PPQ (positive/negative) and NETest (0–100 score) by PCR. Stable < 40; progressive > 40). CgA (ELISA) as comparator. Samples de-identified, measurement and analyses blinded. Kaplan–Meier survival and standard statistics. Results: One hundred twenty-two of the 157 were evaluable. RECIST stabilization or response in 67%; 33% progressed. NETest significantly (p < 0.0001) decreased in RECIST “responders” (− 47 ± 3%); in “non-responders,” it remained increased (+ 79 ± 19%) (p < 0.0005). NETest monitoring accuracy was 98% (119/122). Follow-up levels > 40 (progressive) vs stable (< 40) significantly correlated with mPFS (not reached vs. 10 months; HR 0.04 (95%CI, 0.02–0.07). PPQ response prediction was accurate in 118 (97%) with a 99% accurate positive and 93% accurate negative prediction. NETest significantly (p < 0.0001) decreased in PPQ-predicted responders (− 46 ± 3%) and remained elevated or increased in PPQ-predicted non-responders (+ 75 ± 19%). Follow-up NETest categories stable vs progressive significantly correlated with PPQ prediction and mPFS (not reached vs. 10 months; HR 0.06 (95%CI, 0.03–0.12). CgA did not reflect PRRT treatment: in RECIST responders decrease in 38% and in non-responders 56% (p = NS). Conclusions: PPQ predicts PRRT response in 97%. NETest accurately monitors PRRT response and is an effective surrogate marker of PRRT radiological response. NETest decrease identified responders and correlated (> 97%) with the pretreatment PPQ response predictor. CgA was non-informative.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Biomarker, Liquid biopsy, NETest, Neuroendocrine, PPQ, PRRT
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-019-04601-3, hdl.handle.net/1765/122664
Journal European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Citation
Bodei, L, Kidd, M, Singh, A. (Aviral), van der Zwan, W.A, Severi, S, Drozdov, I, … Modlin, I.M. (2019). PRRT neuroendocrine tumor response monitored using circulating transcript analysis: the NETest. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. doi:10.1007/s00259-019-04601-3