Background: Treatment in children and adolescents with a neurogenic bladder is primarily conservative with the goal of preserving the upper urinary tract combined with a good reservoir function of the bladder. However, sometimes—even in childhood—conservative management does not prevent the development of a low-compliant bladder or overactive detrusor. Material & Methods: After a systematic literature review covering the period 2000-2017, the ESPU/EUAU guideline for neurogenic bladder underwent an update. Results: In these patients, surgical interventions such as botulinum toxin A injections into the detrusor muscle, bladder augmentation, and even urinary diversion may become necessary to preserve the function of the upper (and lower) urinary tracts. The creation of a continent catheterizable channel should be offered to patients with difficulties performing transurethral clean intermittent catheterization. However, a revision rate of up to 50% needs to be considered. With increasing age continence of urine and stool becomes progressively more important. In patients with persistent weak bladder outlets, complete continence can be achieved only by surgical interventions creating a higher resistance/obstruction at the level of the bladder outlet with a success rate of up to 80%. In some patients, bladder neck closure and the creation of a continent catheterizable stoma is an option. Conclusion: In all these patients close follow-up is mandatory to detect surgical complications and metabolic consequences early.

Additional Metadata
Keywords bladder augmentation, bladder neck reconstruction, EAU guideline, Mitrofanoff stoma, neurogenic bladder, sling procedure, urinary diversion
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1002/nau.24248, hdl.handle.net/1765/122670
Journal Neurourology and Urodynamics
Citation
Stein, R.B, Bogaert, G. (Guy), Dogan, H.S. (Hasan S.), Hoen, L. (Lisette), Kocvara, R. (Radim), Nijman, R.J.M, … Radmayr, C. (Christian). (2019). EAU/ESPU guidelines on the management of neurogenic bladder in children and adolescent part II operative management. Neurourology and Urodynamics. doi:10.1002/nau.24248