After autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the first complete remission (CR1), patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) may relapse and undergo allogeneic HCT in the second complete remission (CR2). The aim of this study was to analyze the outcome of allogeneic HCT performed in CR2 comparing patients with prior consolidation by autologous HCT versus patients with chemotherapy consolidation. Included were 2619 adults with allogeneic HCT in CR2 from 2000 to 2017 with (n = 417) or without (n = 2202) prior autologous HCT. Patient groups were not entirely comparable; patients with prior autologous HCT were younger, had less often a favorable cytogenetic profile, had more commonly donors other than matched siblings, and more often received reduced-intensity conditioning. In multivariate analysis, nonrelapse mortality risks in patients with prior autologous HCT were 1.34 (1.07 to 1.67; P =.01) after adjustment for age, cytogenetic risk, transplant year, donor, conditioning intensity, sex matching, interval diagnosis-relapse, and relapse-allogeneic HCT as compared with chemotherapy consolidation. Similarly, risks of events in leukemia-free survival and graft-versus-host disease, relapse-free survival were higher with prior autologous HCT, 1.17 (1.01 to 1.35), P =.03 and 1.18 (1.03 to 1.35), P =.02, respectively. Risk of death was also higher, 1.13 (0.97 to 1.32), P =.1, but this was not significant. Postremission consolidation with autologous HCT for AML in CR1 increases toxicity of subsequent allogeneic HCT in CR2.

AML autologous consolidation, Subsequent allogeneic HCT, Toxicity,
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation

Passweg, J, Labopin, M, Christopeit, M. (M.), Cornelissen, J.J, Pabst, T. (T.), Socie, G, … Nagler, A. (2019). Postremission Consolidation by Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (HCT) for Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Complete Remission (CR) and Negative Implications for Subsequent Allogeneic HCT in Second CR: A Study by the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.11.021