Background and aim: External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) combined with brachytherapy has an essential role in the curative treatment of primary vaginal cancer. EBRT is associated with significant tumour shrinkage, making primary vaginal cancer suitable for image guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT). The aim of these recommendations is to introduce an adaptive target volume concept for IGABT of primary vaginal cancer. Methods: In December 2013, a task group was initiated within GYN GEC-ESTRO with the purpose to introduce an IGABT target concept for primary vaginal cancer. All participants have broad experience in IGABT and vaginal cancer brachytherapy. The target concept was elaborated as consensus agreement based on an iterative process including target delineation and dose planning comparison, retrospective analysis of clinical data and expert opinions. Results: Gynaecological examination and MR imaging are the modalities of choice for local tumour assessment. A specific template for standardised documentation with clinical drawings for vaginal cancer was developed. The adaptive target volume concept comprises different response-related target volumes. For EBRT these are related to the primary tumour and the lymph nodes, while for IGABT these are related to the primary tumour and are consisting of the residual gross tumour volume (GTV-Tres) and the high-, and intermediate risk clinical target volumes (CTV-THR, CTV-TIR). Conclusion: This target concept for IGABT of primary vaginal cancer defines adaptive target volumes for volumetric dose prescription and should improve comparability of different radiotherapy schedules of this rare disease. A prospective evaluation of the target volume concept within a multicentre study is planned.

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Keywords Guideline, Image guided adaptive brachytherapy, MRI, Radiotherapy, Vaginal cancer
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Journal Radiotherapy & Oncology
Schmid, M.P, Fokdal, L. (Lars), Westerveld, H. (Henrike), Chargari, C. (Cyrus), Rohl, L. (Lisbeth), Morice, P. (Philippe), … Nout, R.A. (2020). Recommendations from gynaecological (GYN) GEC-ESTRO working group – ACROP: Target concept for image guided adaptive brachytherapy in primary vaginal cancer. Radiotherapy & Oncology, 145, 36–44. doi:10.1016/j.radonc.2019.11.005