Objective: To summarize recently published key articles on the topics of biomedical engineering, biotechnology and new models in relation to otitis media (OM). Data sources: Electronic databases: PubMed, Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library and Clinical Evidence (BMJ Publishing). Review methods: Articles on biomedical engineering, biotechnology, material science, mechanical and animal models in OM published between May 2015 and May 2019 were identified and subjected to review. A total of 132 articles were ultimately included. Results: New imaging technologies for the tympanic membrane (TM) and the middle ear cavity are being developed to assess TM thickness, identify biofilms and differentiate types of middle ear effusions. Artificial intelligence (AI) has been applied to train software programs to diagnose OM with a high degree of certainty. Genetically modified mice models for OM have further investigated what predisposes some individuals to OM and consequent hearing loss. New vaccine candidates protecting against major otopathogens are being explored and developed, especially combined vaccines, targeting more than one pathogen. Transcutaneous vaccination against non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae has been successfully tried in a chinchilla model. In terms of treatment, novel technologies for trans-tympanic drug delivery are entering the clinical domain. Various growth factors and grafting materials aimed at improving healing of TM perforations show promising results in animal models. Conclusion: New technologies and AI applications to improve the diagnosis of OM have shown promise in pre-clinical models and are gradually entering the clinical domain. So are novel vaccines and drug delivery approaches that may allow local treatment of OM. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: New diagnostic methods, potential vaccine candidates and the novel trans-tympanic drug delivery show promising results, but are not yet adapted to clinical use.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Animal model, Diagnostics, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Otitis media, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Treatment, Vaccines
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2019.109833, hdl.handle.net/1765/123100
Journal International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Citation
Gisselsson-Solén, M. (Marie), Tähtinen, P.A. (Paula A.), Ryan, A.F. (Allen F.), Mulay, A. (Apoorva), Kariya, S. (Shin), Schilder, A.G, … Marom, T. (Tal). (2019). Panel 1: Biotechnology, biomedical engineering and new models of otitis media. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. doi:10.1016/j.ijporl.2019.109833