Purpose: Similar to multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, multiparametric ultrasound represents a promising approach to prostate cancer imaging. We determined the diagnostic performance of B-mode, shear wave elastography and contrast enhanced ultrasound with quantification software as well as the combination, multiparametric ultrasound, for clinically significant prostate cancer localization using radical prostatectomy histopathology as the reference standard. Materials and Methods: From May 2017 to July 2017, 50 men with biopsy proven prostate cancer underwent multiparametric ultrasound before radical prostatectomy at 1 center. Three readers independently evaluated 12 anatomical regions of interest for the likelihood of clinically significant prostate cancer on a 5-point Likert scale for all separate ultrasound modalities and multiparametric ultrasound. A logistic linear mixed model was used to estimate diagnostic performance for the localization of clinically significant prostate cancer (any tumor with Gleason score 3 D 4 [ 7 or greater, tumor volume 0.5 ml or greater, extraprostatic extension or stage pN1) using a Likert score of 3 or greater and 4 or greater as the threshold. To detect the index lesion the readers selected the 2 most suspicious regions of interest. Results: A total of 48 men were included in the final analysis. The region of interest specific sensitivity of multiparametric ultrasound (Likert 3 or greater) for clinically significant prostate cancer was 74% (95% CI 67e80) compared to 55% (95% CI 47e63), 55% (95% CI 47e63) and 59% (95% CI 51e67) for B-mode, shear wave elastography and contrast enhanced ultrasound, respectively. Multiparametric ultrasound sensitivity was significantly higher for Likert thresholds and all different clinically significant prostate cancer definitions (all p <0.05). Multiparametric ultrasound improved the detection of index lesion prostate cancer. Conclusions: Multiparametric ultrasound of the prostate, consisting of B-mode, shear wave elastography and contrast enhanced ultrasound with parametric maps, improved localization and index lesion detection of clinically significant prostate cancer compared to single ultrasound modalities, yielding good sensitivity.

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Keywords prostatic neoplasms, diagnostic imaging, ultrasonography, elasticity imaging techniques, contrast media
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1097/ju.0000000000000415, hdl.handle.net/1765/123270
Journal The Journal of Urology
Mannaerts, C.K., Wildeboer, R.R., Remmers, S, van Kollenburg, R.A.A., Kajtazovic, A., Hagemann, J., … Salomon, G. (2019). Multiparametric Ultrasound for Prostate Cancer Detection and Localization: Correlation of B-mode, Shear Wave Elastography and Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound with Radical Prostatectomy Specimens. The Journal of Urology, 202(6), 1166–1172. doi:10.1097/ju.0000000000000415