Etiology and Clinical Presentation of Disorders of Sex Development in Kenyan Children and Adolescents
Objective. )e purpose of this study was to describe baseline data on etiological, clinical, laboratory, and management strategies in Kenyan children and adolescents with Disorders of Sex Development (DSD). Methods. )is retrospective study included patients diagnosed with DSD who presented at ages 0–19 years from January 2008 to December 2015 at the Kenyatta National (KNH) and Gertrude’s Children’s (GCH) Hospitals. After conducting a search in the data registry, a structured data collection sheet was used for collection of demographic and clinical data. Data analysis involved description of the frequency of occurrence of various variables, such as etiologic diagnoses and patient characteristics. Results. Data from the records of 71 children and adolescents were reviewed at KNH (n � 57, 80.3%) and GCH (n � 14, 19.7%). )e mean age at the time of diagnosis was 2.7 years with a median of 3 months. )irty-nine (54.9%) children had karyotype testing done. )e median age (IQR) of children with reported karyotypes and those without was 3.3 years (1.3–8.9) and 8.3 years (3.6–12.1), respectively (p � 0.021). Based on karyotype analysis, 19 (48.7%) of karyotyped children had 46,XY DSD and 18 (46.2%) had 46,XX DSD. )ere were two (5.1%) children with sex chromosome DSD. Among the 71 patients, the most common presumed causes of DSD were ovotesticular DSD (14.1%) and CAH (11.3%). Majority (95.7%) of the patients presented with symptoms of DSD at birth. )e most common presenting symptom was ambiguous genitalia, which was present in 66 (93.0%) patients either in isolation or in association with other symptoms. An ambiguous genitalia was initially observed by the patient’s mother in 51.6% of 62 cases despite the high rate (84.7%) of delivery in hospital. Seventeen (23.9%) of the cases had a gender reassignment at final diagnosis. A psychologist/psychiatrist or counselor was involved in the management of 23.9% of the patients. Conclusion. )e commonest presumed cause of DSD was ovotesticular DSD in contrast to western studies, which found CAH to be more common. Investigation of DSD cases is expensive and needs to be supported. We would have liked to do molecular genetic analysis outside the country but financial challenges made it impossible. A network for detailed diagnostics in resource-limited countries would be highly desirable. )ere is a need to train health care workers and medical students for early diagnosis. Psychological evaluation should be carried out for all patients at diagnosis and support given for families.
|Persistent URL||dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/2985347, hdl.handle.net/1765/123306|
|Journal||International Journal of Endocrinology|
Amolo, P., Laigong, P., Omar, A., & Drop, S.L.S. (2019). Etiology and Clinical Presentation of Disorders of Sex Development in Kenyan Children and Adolescents. International Journal of Endocrinology, 2019. doi:10.1155/2019/2985347