Objective: Historically, women have been underrepresented in medicine but nowadays the underrepresentation is more applicable to surgical disciplines. Many efforts have been made to decrease the attrition rate of women in neurosurgery and to even career opportunities to be comparable to those of male colleagues. However, it is unclear if gender disparities occur between female and male neurosurgeons. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to identify gender differences in the professional and private life of neurosurgeons. Methods: A survey consisting of 38 questions was sent to members of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons regarding demographics, career fulfillment, private life, and parenting. Comparison between female and male respondents was made. Results: A total of 870 members filled in surveys, which were analyzed. Working full time, days worked weekly, and gross salary did not differ between male and female neurosurgeons. However, female neurosurgeons rated their career fulfillment worse than did male neurosurgeons (P < 0.001) and were less likely to choose a career as a neurosurgeon again (P < 0.001). Furthermore, female neurosurgeons were less likely to be married or to have children than were male colleagues (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Despite efforts to increase the amount of women enrolling into neurosurgery and despite efforts to strive for equality, the results of the current study show gender disparities in professional and private careers among neurosurgeons. Practice patterns did not differ between male and female neurosurgeons, but perceptions of career and characteristics of private life did. Program directors and chairs should focus on measures to decrease gender differences and to strive for equal career satisfaction among female and male neurosurgeons.

Equality, Gender differences, Neurosurgeons
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.11.178, hdl.handle.net/1765/123552
World Neurosurgery
Department of Neurosurgery

Gadjradj, P.S, Matawlie, R.H.S. (Roshni H.S.), Voigt, I. (Ishitari), Harhangi, B.S, & Vleggeert-Lankamp, C.L.A.M. (2019). Gender Differences Between Male and Female Neurosurgeons: Is There Equality for All?. World Neurosurgery. doi:10.1016/j.wneu.2019.11.178